Clarke, Donald C.

GW Law Faculty Publications

June 22, 2020

SSRN | Scholarly Commons


China's Legal System: New Developments, New Challenges, Edited by Donald C. Clarke. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. 

Wrongs and Rights: A Human Rights Analysis of China's Revised Criminal Code. New York: Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, 1998. 



Anti Anti-Orientalism, or Is Chinese Law Different?, Am. J. Comp. L. (2020),

Form and Function in China’s Urban Land Regime: The Irrelevance of ‘Ownership,’ 79 Land Use Pol’y 902 (2018).

Animal Science Products, Inc. v. Hebei Welcome Pharmaceuticals Co.:  Respect but Verify:  Foreign Government Statements of Foreign Law Do Not Get Conclusive Deference, Geo. Wash. L. Rev. On the Docket (Oct. 2017 term) (June 21, 2018),

(With Fang Lu.)  The Law of China's Local Government Debt: Local Government Financing Vehicles and Their Bonds, 65 Am. J. Comp. L. 751 (2017).

The Bonding Effect in Chinese Cross-Listed Companies: Is It Real?, in Enforcement of Corporate and Securities Law:  China and the World 88 (Robin Hui Huang & Nicholas Calcina Howson eds., 2017).

Don't Ask, Don't Sell: The Criminalization of Business Information-Gathering in China and the Case of Peter Humphrey, 33 UCLA Pac. Basin L. J. 109 (2016).

China’s Legal System and the Fourth Plenum, Asia Pol’y, July 2015, at 10-16.

"Blowback: How China's Efforts to Bring Private-Sector Standards into the Public Sector Backfired," in Regulating the Visible Hand?: The Institutional Implications of Chinese State Capitalism. Ed. by Benjamin L. Liebman and Curtis J. Milhaupt. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

"China's Stealth Urban Land Revolution," 62 American Journal of Comparative Law 323-366 (2014).

"Judicial Innovation in Chinese Corporate Law," in Legal Innovation in Asia. Ed. by John O. Haley and Toshiko Takenaka. Cheltenham, U.K; Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2014.

(With Howson, Nicholas C.)  "Pathway to Minority Shareholder Protection: Derivative Actions in the People's Republic of China," in The Derivative Action in Asia: a Comparative and Functional Approach, p. 243-295.  Ed. by Dan W. Puchniak et al.  Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 2012.

"The Past and Future of Comparative Corporate Governance," in Research Handbook on the Economics of Corporate Law. Ed. by Claire A. Hill and Brett H. McDonnell. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2012.

"What Kind of Legal System Is Necessary for Economic Development? The China Puzzle," in Law Reform in Developing and Transitional States, p. 65-2. Ed. by Tim Lindsey. New York: Routledge, 2012.

"'Nothing But Wind'? The Past and Future of Comparative Corporate Governance," 59 American Journal of Comparative Law 75-110 (2011).

“Introduction to Part IV:  Commercial Regulation in China and Vietnam,” in Legal Reforms in China and Vietnam:  A Comparison of Asian Communist Regimes, p. 219-225.  Ed. by John Gillespie and Albert H.Y. Chen.  New York:  Routledge, 2010.

"Law Without Order in Chinese Corporate Governance Institutions," 30 Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business 131-199 (2010).

"New Approaches to the Study of Political Order in China," 36 Modern China no. 1, 87-99 (2010).

"The Private Attorney-General in China: Potential and Pitfalls," 8 Washington University Global Studies Law Review 241-255 (2009).

"The Role of Non-Legal Institutions in Chinese Corporate Governance," in Transforming Corporate Governance in East Asia, p. 168-192.  Ed. by Hideki Kanda et al.  London:  Routledge, 2008.

(With Murrell, Peter, and Susan Whiting.) "The Role of Law in China's Economic Development." China's Great Economic Transformation, p. 375-428. Edited by Thomas Rawski and Loren Brandt. New York : Cambridge University Press, 2008.

"Legislating for a Market Economy in China," 2007 China Quarterly 567-585.

"The Chinese Legal System Since 1995: Steady Development, Striking Continuities," 2007 China Quarterly 555-566.

"Three Concepts of the Independent Director." 32 Delaware Journal of Corporate Law 73-111 (2007).

"What Kind of Legal System Is Necessary for Economic Development? The China Puzzle." in Law Reform in Developing and Transitional States p. 65-92. Ed. by Tim Lindsey. London : Routledge, 2007.

"The Independent Director in Chinese Corporate Governance." 31 Delaware Journal of Corporate Law 125-228 (2006).

"How do we Know When an Enterprise Exists? Unanswerable Questions and Legal Polycentricity in China." 19 Columbia Journal of Asian Law 50-71 (2005).

(With Murrell, Peter & Susan Whiting). "Law, Institutions, and Property Rights in China." Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Asia Program Special Report, no. 129, p. 42-47 (2005).

"Yige bing bu yuan de waiguo yueliang: Meiguo fan neimu jiaoyi de falu zhidu." 2 Hongfan Pinglun 225-238 (2005).

"Zhengfu Chigu Yu Zhongguo Gongsi Zhili." 2 Hongfan Pinglun 230-248 (2005).

"Zhongguo xiuding 'Xing Fa' pingjia." (An Assessment of China's Revisions to the "Criminal Law"). in Zhongguo Shehui Zhuanxing Shiqi de Falu Fazhan (The Development of Law in China's Transitional Society). 448-492, edited by Xu Chuanxi. Beijing: Falu Chubanshe, 2004.

With Howson, Nicholas C. & Lester Ross. "China." 2003 Insolvency & Restructuring, ch. 9. London: Law Business Research, 2003.

"China's Legal System and the WTO: Prospects for Compliance," 2 Washington University Global Studies Law Review 97-118 (2003).

"Corporate Governance in China: An Overview." 14 China Economic Review 494-507 (2003).

"Corporatisation, Not Privatisation." 7 China Economic Quarterly, no. 3, p. 27-30 (2003).

"Duli dongshi yu Zhongguo gongsi zhili." (The Independent Director and Chinese Corporate Governance), 2 Fa Da Pinglun 99-122 (2003).

"Economic Development and the Rights Hypothesis: The China Problem," 51 American Journal of Comparative Law 89-111 (2003).

"Empirical Research in Chinese Law." in Beyond Common Knowledge: Empirical Approaches to the Rule of Law 164-192, edited by Erik Jensen & Thomas Heller. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003.

"Fazhi yu WTO: Zhongguo Dui Shi Mao de Chengnuo Qianjing Zhanwang." (Legal System and the WTO: Prospects for China's WTO Commitments.) Ren yu Renquan (Humanity and Human Rights), no. 9 (May 2003).

"Puzzling Observations in Chinese Law: When is a Riddle Just a Mistake?" in Understanding China's Legal System, p. 93-121. Edited by C. Stephen Hsu. New York : New York University Press, 2003.

"Xintuo zeren de zhenzheng yiyi -- yu Lang Xianping jiaoshou shangque." (The True Meaning of Fiduciary Liability: A Discussion with Professor Lang Zianping). Zhongguo Zhengquan Bao (China Securities News) (Dec. 5, 2003).

With Ross, Lester. "China." 2002 Insolvency & Restructuring 57-63. London: Law Business Research, 2002.

"Zhongguo de jiufen jiejue." (Dispute Resolution in China), in Tiajjie, Fazhi yu Xiandaixing: Zhongguo Tiaojie Zhidu Yanjiu (Mediation, Legality, and Modernity: Studies in the Chinese Mediation System), edited by Jiang Shigong. Beijing: Zhongguo Fazhi Chubanshe, 2001.

"Chugokuho kenkyu no apurochi: 'ho no shihai' paradaimu wo koete." (Approaches to Chinese Law: Beyond the 'Rule of Law' Paradigm. 34 Hikaku Hogaku, no. 1, p. 73-91 (2000).

"Zhongguo tudi shiyong guanli zi xia er shang de celue." (A Bottom-Up Strategy for Land Use Regulation in China). in Zouru 21 Shiji de Zhongguo Nongcun Tudi Zhidu Gaige (China's Rural Land System Reform Going Into the 21st Century) 299-303, edited by Chi Fulin. Beijing: Zhongguo Jingji Chubanshe, 2000.

"Alternative Approaches to Chinese Law: Beyond the 'Rule of Law' Paradigm." 2 Waseda Proceedings of Comparative Law 49-62 (1998-1999).

"China and the World Trade Organization." in Doing Business in China I-11.1 to I-11.30, edited by Freshfields. Yonkers, NY: Juris Publishing, 1999.

With Davis, Angela H. "Dispute Resolution in China: The Arbitration Option." in China 2000: Emerging Investment, Funding and Advisory Opportunities for a New China 151-162. Hong Kong: Euromoney Publications (Jersey) Limited, 1999.

"Private Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights in China." 10 NBR Analysis, no. 2, p. 29-41 (Apr 1999).

"The Execution of Civil Judgments in China." 1995 China Quarterly 65-81.
     Translated into Japanese as "Chugoku ni okeru minji hanketsu no kyosei shikko." in Chugoku no Keizai Hatten to Ho, 343-367, edited by Hikota Koguchi. Tokyo: Waseda University Institute of Comparative Law, 1998.

With Howson, Nicholas C. & Gangliang Qiao. "China's New Partnership Law." The China Business Review 30-33 (July-Aug. 1997).

"State Council Notice Nullifies Statutory Rights of Creditors." 19 East Asian Executive Reports, no. 4, p. 9-15 (Apr. 15, 1997).

"Bill Jones: An Appreciation." 74 Washington University Law Quarterly 545-546 (1996).

With Howson, Nicholas C. "Developing P.R.C. Property and Real Estate Law: Revised Land Registration Rules." 18 East Asian Executive Reports, no. 4, p. 9, 13-17 (Apr. 15, 1996).

"Methodologies for Research in Chinese Law." 30 University of British Columbia Law Review 201-209 (1996).

"One Step Back Permits Two Steps Forward." China Rights Forum 8-11 (Fall 1996).

"People's Court Execution Rules." 10 Columbia Journal of Asian Law 93 (1996).

"Power and Politics in the Chinese Court System: The Execution of Civil Judgments." 10 Columbia Journal of Asian Law 1-125 (1996).

With Howson, Nicholas C. "Shanghai Measures on Land Use by FIEs: An Indication of Coming Changes in the National System?" 18 East Asian Executive Reports, no. 11, p. 9-13 (Nov. 15, 1996).

"The Creation of a Legal Structure for Market Institutions in China." in Reforming Asian Socialism: The Growth of Market Institutions 39-59, edited by John McMillan & Barry Naughton. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996.

With Feinerman, James V. "Antagonistic Contradictions: Criminal Law and Human Rights in China." 1995 China Quarterly 135-154.

"Justice and the Legal System." in China in the 1990s 83-93, edited by Robert Benewick & Paul Wingrove. London: Macmillan, 1995.

"GATT Membership for China?" 17 University of Puget Sound Law Review 517-531 (1994).

"Regulation and Its Discontents: Understanding Economic Law in China." 28 Stanford Journal of International Law 283-322 (1992).

"Dispute Resolution in China." 5 Journal of Chinese Law 245-296 (1991).

"Implementation of Central Policy and the Law in China." European Association for Chinese Law Information Bulletin (1991).

"Law, the State and Economic Reform in China," in The Chinese State in the Era of Economic Reform: The Road to Crisis, p. 190-211. Edited by Gordon White. London : Macmillan, 1991.

"What's Law Got to Do with It? Legal Institutions and Economic Reform in China." 10 UCLA Pacific Basin Law Journal 1-76 (1991).

"Foreign Economic Laws and Bureaucracy in China." 5 European Association for Chinese Law Information Bulletin, no. 4, p. 3-7 (Dec 1989).

"Relief on the Way for Foreign Investors." South 32 (June 1987).

"China's New Rule of Law." Britain-China, no. 31, p. 11-14 (Spring 1986).

"Concepts of Law in the Chinese Anti-Crime Campaign." 98 Harvard Law Review1890-1908 (June 1985).

"Political Power and Authority in Recent Chinese Literature." 1985 China Quarterly 234-252.

"Proposed Consent Agreement Between General Motors Corporation and Toyota Motor Corporation." 25 Harvard International Law Journal 421-427 (1984).



Embedded Courts: Judicial Decision-Making in China, 237 China Q. 266 (2019) (book review).

Review of Assessing the Value of Law in Transition Economies, by Peter Murrell. 41 Journal of Economic Literature 624-625 (2003).

Review of Law and Social Change in Postwar Japan, by Frank K. Upham. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (1989)

Review of Foreign Trade, Investment, and the Law in the People's Republic of China, by Michael J. Moser. 1989 Lloyd's Maritime and Commercial Law Quarterly, pt. 1, p. 129-130 (1989)

Review of China's Legal Development, by J. Oldham. 1987 China Quarterly 122-123.

Review of Chinese Business under Socialism: The Politics of Domestic Commerce, 1949-1980, by D. Solinger. 1986 China Quarterly 348-350.

Review of Guide to the Patent Law of the People's Republic of China, by P. Gladwin & A. Hameed. 8 European Intellectual Property Review 160 (1986).

 Review of Intellectual Property Law in the People's Republic of China, by M.D. Pendleton. 8 European Intellectual Property Review 323-324 (1986).

 Review of Les Sources du Droit de la Republique Populaire de Chine, by D.T.C. Wang. 1986 China Quarterly 727-728.



(With Sarah Biddulph et al.)  Winter Settles on Chinese Universities, Foreign Pol’y (April 1, 2019, 12:23 PM),

China’s Hostage Diplomacy, Lawfare (Jan. 11, 2019, 10:54 PM),

Opinion, China Is Holding Two Canadians as Hostages. It’s Not Even Denying It, Wash. Post (December 17, 2018, 4:13 PM),

No, New Xinjiang Legislation Does Not Legalize Detention Centers, Lawfare (Oct. 11, 2018, 6:00 AM),

Do Western Media Focus Too Much on Human Rights Issues in China?, HKFP Hong Kong Free Press (Jan. 13, 2018, 11:00 AM),

Has China Restored Private Land Ownership?:  The Implications of Beijing’s New Policy, Foreign Aff. (May 16, 2017),

The Paradox at the Heart of China's Property Regime, Foreign Pol'y (Jan. 19, 2017),
     Available at:

"Alibaba Shareholder Disenfranchisement: Worse Than You Think," FT Alphaville (Oct. 20, 2014),

Understanding China’s Crackdown on Rights Advocates: Personal Accounts and Perspectives: The Significance of Recent Detentions for the Rule of Law in China Before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China, 113th Cong. 27 (2014) (statement of Donald Clarke, David A. Weaver Research Professor of Law, The George Washington University School of Law).

"The Bo Xilai Trial and China's 'Rule of Law': Same Old, Same Old," The Atlantic (Aug. 21, 2013),

"Why Hefei?," Caixin Online (July 27, 2012),

"China's Jasmine Crackdown and the Legal System," East Asia Forum (Australian National University), May 26, 2011,

"Who Owns the Chinese Internet?", Caixin Online, July 15, 2011,
     Chinese-language version available at:

"Lawyers and the State: Recent Developments," Testimony before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Washington, D.C. October 7, 2009. Available at Hearing Testimony - Donald Clarke - 10.7.09.pdf

"China: Creating a Legal System for a Market Economy," prepared for the Asian Development Bank (Nov. 7, 2007). Available at:

"Setting the Record Straight: Three Concepts of the Independent Director," GWU Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper No. 199 (March 17, 2006).

(With Murrell, Peter, and Susan Whiting.) "The Role of Law in China's Economic Development," GWU Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper No. 187 (Jan. 27, 2006).

Statement Before the United States-China Security Review Commission (Jan. 18, 2002) [on China's accession to the World Trade Organization], in Compilation of Hearings Held Before the U.S.-China Security Review Commission 1171-1181. 107th Congress, 1st & 2nd Sessions. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002).

Statement Before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China (June 6, 2002), in WTO: Will China Keep Its Promises? Can It? Hearings Before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China 66-78. 107th Congress, 2nd Session. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002).

Contribution on the People's Republic of China for "Crime and Punishment" section of the Encyclopedia Britannica (1989).

Translation. "The Management Liability of Directors." 20 Law in Japan 150-172 (1987). (Translation from Japanese of M. Kondo, "Torishimariyaku no keiei sekinin").