Lee, Cynthia

GW Law Faculty Publications

April 22, 2021

SSRN | Scholarly Commons


(With Harris, Angela). Criminal Law: Cases and Materials (4th ed. 2019).
     First edition published in 2005.
     Second edition published in 2009.
     Third edition published in 2014.

(With L. Song Richardson & Tamara Lawson.)  Criminal Procedure: Cases and Materials (2d ed. 2018).
     First edition published in 2016. 
     Third edition forthcoming 2022.

Criminal Procedure:  Investigation, Cases and Materials (2d ed. 2018).

(With L. Song Richardson & Tamara Lawson.)   Criminal Procedure:  Adjudication, Cases and Materials (2d ed. 2018).

The Fourth Amendment, Searches and Seizures:  Its Constitutional History and the Contemporary Debate. Amherst, N.Y.:  Prometheus Books, 2011. 

Murder and the Reasonable Man: Passion and Fear in the Criminal Courtroom. New York:  New York University Press, 2003. 



Officer Created Jeopardy: Broadening the Time Frame When Assessing the Reasonableness of a Police Officer’s Use of Deadly Force, 89 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. (forthcoming 2021).

Race and the Criminal Law Curriculum, in The Oxford Handbook of Race and Law in the United States (Khiara Bridges, Devin Carbado & Emily Houh eds., forthcoming 2021).

Probable Cause with Teeth, 88 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 269 (2020).

The Trans Panic Defense Revisited, 57 Am. Crim. L. Rev. 1411 (2020).

Surviving a Difficult Tenure Process:  Tips for Junior Faculty of Color, in Presumed Incompetent II:  Race, Class, Power, and Resistance of Women in Academia 49 (Yolanda Nieman et al., 2020).

Reforming the Law on Police Use of Deadly Force: De-escalation, Preseizure Conduct, and Imperfect Self-Defense, 2018 U. Ill. L. Rev. 629.

Awareness as a First Step Toward Overcoming Implicit Bias, in Enhancing Justice:  Reducing Bias 289 (Sarah E. Redfield ed., 2017).

Peña-Rodriguez v. Colorado:  The Court’s New Racial Bias Exception to the No-Impeachment Rule, Geo. Wash. L. Rev. On the Docket (Mar. 19, 2017), http://www.gwlr.org/pena-rodriguez-v-colorado-the-courts-new-racial-bias-exception-to-the-no-impeachment-rule/.

Making Black and Brown Lives Matter:  Incorporating Race into the Criminal Procedure Curriculum, 60 St. Louis U. L. J. 481 (2016).

Race, Policing, and Lethal Force:  Remedying Shooter Bias with Martial Arts Training, 79 Law & Contemp. Probs., no. 3, 2016, at 145.

"A New Approach to Voir Dire on Racial Bias," 5 UC Irvine Law Review 843-872 (2015).

"(E)Racing Trayvon Martin," 12 Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 91-113 (2014).

"Honoring Angela Harris: A Review of Gender, Violence, Race, and Criminal Justice," 47 UC Davis Law Review 1037-1046 (2014).

(With Kwan, Peter.) "The Trans Panic Defense: Masculinity, Heteronormativity, and the Murder of Transgender Women," 66 Hastings Law Journal 77-132 (2014).

"Criminal Law Pedagogy: Making Things Clear," 10 Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 637-638 (2013).

"Making Race Salient: Trayvon Martin and Implicit Bias in a Not Yet Post-Racial Society," 91 North Carolina Law Review 1556-1612 (2013).

"Masculinity on Trial: Gay Panic in the Criminal Courtroom," 42 Southwestern Law Review 817-831 (2013).

"Reasonableness with Teeth: The Future of Fourth Amendment Reasonableness Analysis," 81 Mississippi Law Journal 1133-1182 (2012).

"The Future of 'Reasonableness' Analysis: When Is a Search or Seizure Justified?," 81 Mississippi Law Journal 1133-1182 (2012).

"Package Bombs, Footlockers and Laptops: What the Disappearing Container Doctrine Can Tell Us about the Fourth Amendment," 100 Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 1403-1494 (2010).
     Available at http://www.law.northwestern.edu/jclc/backissues/v100/n4/1004_1403.Lee.pdf.

"Hate Crimes and the War on Terror," in 5 Hate Crimes: Responding to Hate Crime, p. 139-166. Edited by Barbara Perry; Frederick M. Lawrence, volume editor. Westport, CT : Praeger Publishers, 2009.

"Reasonable Provocation and Self-Defense: Recognizing the Distinction between Act Reasonableness and Emotion Reasonableness," in Criminal Law Conversations, p. 427-448. Edited by Paul H. Robinson, Stephen Garvey and Kimberly Ferzan. New York : Oxford University Press, 2009.

(With Harris, Angela P.) "Teaching Criminal Law from a Critical Perspective," (Commentary Symposium: Criminal Law, Casebooks, and Legal Education) 7 Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 261-266 (2009).

"The Gay Panic Defense," 42 UC Davis Law Review 471-566 (2008).

"Cultural convergence: Interest Convergence Theory Meets the Cultural Defense," 49 Arizona Law Review 911-959 (2007).

"'Murder and the Reasonable Man' Revisited: A Response to Victoria Nourse." 3 Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 301-306 (2005).

"'But I Thought He Had a Gun': Race and Police Use of Deadly Force." 2 Hastings Race and Poverty Law Journal1-51 (2004).

"Culture and Crime." 9 Goal IX, No. 3, p. 1 (Summer 2003).

"Race and the Victim: An Examination of Capital Sentencing and Guilt Attribution Studies." 73 Chicago-Kent Law Review 533-558 (1998).

"The Act-Belief Distinction in Self-Defense Doctrine: A New Dual Requirement Theory of Justification." 2 Buffalo Criminal Law Review 191-247 (1998).

"A New 'Sliding Scale of Deference' Approach to Abuse of Discretion: Appellate Review of District Court Departures under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines." 35 American Criminal Law Review 1-55 (1997).

"From Gatekeeper to Concierge: The Federal Prosecutor's Expanding Power over Substantial Assistance Departures." 50 Rutgers Law Review 199-251 (1997).

"Race and Self Defense: Toward a Normative Conception of Reasonableness." 81 Minnesota Law Review 367-500 (1996).
     Reprinted two-part series in 5 Criminal Practice Law Reporter 25 (1997) and 5 Criminal Practice Law Reporter 33 (1997).
     Reprinted in Race and Races: American Law in Critical Context. St. Paul: West, 1999.
     Reprinted in Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999.

"Beyond Black and White: Racializing Asian Americans in a Society Obsessed with O.J." 6 Hastings Women's Law Journal 165-207 (1995).
     Adapted version published in Asian Week 12 (Nov. 12, 1995).

"Prosecutorial Discretion, Substantial Assistance, and the Federal Sentencing Guidelines." 42 UCLA Law Review 105-180 (1994).
     Reprinted in 3 Criminal Practice Law Reporter 17 (1995).
    Reprinted in 18 Criminal Law Review 443 (1996).

"The Sentencing Court's Decision to Depart Downward in Recognition of a Defendant's Substantial Assistance: A Proposal to Eliminate the Government Motion Requirement." 23 Indiana Law Review 681-702 (1990).

"Freedom of Speech in the Public Workplace: A Comment on the Public Concern Requirement." 76 California Law Review 1109-1146 (1988).


(With Chanda Smith Baker et al.)  21 Experts on What the Verdict Means – And Where We Go from Here, Politico Mag. (Apr. 20, 2021, 10:00 PM), https://www.politico.com/news/magazine/2021/04/20/mag-roundup-chauvinverdict-483640.

Opinion, It's Time to Judge Cops by Their Actions, Politico (June 11, 2020, 4:06 PM), https://www.politico.com/news/magazine/2020/06/11/prosecute-police-reasonable-fear-conduct-313833.

Opinion, It Looks Like Another Black Man with a Gun Was Killed by Police After Trying to Help, Slate (Nov. 29, 2018, 5:58 PM), https://slate.com/news-and-politics/2018/11/ej-bradford-jemel-roberson-police-shootings-good-guy-with-gun.html.

Opinion, Jemel Roberson’s Avoidable Death:  Reform Deadly Force Laws, Require Police to De-Escalate, USA Today (Nov. 15, 2018, 5:00 AM), https://www.usatoday.com/story/opinion/2018/11/15/jemel-roberson-killed-deadly-force-require-police-de-escalation-column/2002341002/.